Friday, February 24, 2012

Singapore’s Aerial Tanker Buy

The Republic of Singapore Air Force currently relies on 4 re-engined KC-135R aerial refueling tankers, in order to extend the range of its fighter jets, and perform some long-range transport and cargo missions. This means that they share their aircraft type with the USAF, but it also means that they share the problems and rising operating costs that accompany aging aircraft.
In February 2012, the RSAF set a process in motion to replace their KC-135Rs with a new refueling aircraft. Two of the expected contenders are familiar. The 3rd is less so…

Competition & Key Events

RAAF KC-30B concept
Airbus’ A330 MRTT/ KC-30B has been picked by BritainSaudi Arabia, and the UAE as well as by Singapore’s regional partner Australia. India also seems interested in this aircraft.
Boeing’s smaller KC-767 has been picked by Italy and Japan, and was eventually chosen by the USAF as its KC-46A. Boeing promoted that version at Aero Singapore 2012, and has a strong relationship with Singapore, but that may not be Singapore’s best option. If the RSAF wants the new USAF KC-46A version, instead of the earlier model KC-767A delivered to Japan, they’ll have to wait until it’s fully developed, tested, and certified. That’s likely to mean waiting until 2018, or later.
The 3rd option is also a 767. Israel Aerospace Industries’ Bedek subsidiary offers a cheaper B767 MMTT (Multi-Mode Tanker/Transporter), which can be based on carefully sourced used 767-200ER or 767 cargo aircraft, in order to bring the price way down. Colombia currently flies 1, and a new version is promised with the boom refueling system that Singapore’s American fighters would need. It was touted at the Aero Singapore 2012 exhibition, and Singapore also has long-standing defense ties with Israel. While the hose-and-drogue conversion is designed to ease international airspace certification through its similarity to the 767 cargo type cert, it remains to be seen whether a feature as significant as a boom can be added without additional time for re-certification.
767-MMTT, Kfir C10
B767 MMTT & Kfir C10
Feb 21/12: Quoting “industry sources,” Aviation Week reports that Singapore has issued its aerial tanker RFI. Speculation is that the formal RFP is due in mid-2012.
Outside the USA, aerial refueling orders tend to be for 1-6 planes, and even Britain and France are looking at just 10-14. A 4-plane order may not seem like much, but it’s about average size for the global market, on an item that typically carries a $150-300 million price tag. IAI Bedek thinks they have a way to beat that range; the question is whether Singapore will be OK with a conversion strategy. India was not, for instance, even though that meant a much more expensive buy.
Feb 16/12: 767 MMTT. IAI’s Bedek ciovil aircraft conversion specialists say that they have finalized the design and tests of certain new systems developed specifically for their new 767 MMTT. The new version will add a new fly-by-wire Boom refueling system, with a Remote Aerial Refueling Operator (RARO) station and day or night viewing systems, on top of the existing Hose & Drogue system. IAI Bedek’s Moshe Scharf tells Defense Update that:
“Three years ago we began developing the new generation of 767 MMTT. We are expecting the supply of this type of aircraft to certain European air forces in the coming months….”
The comment concerning Europe might be explained by a Polish tender that has been delayed by lack of funds, but is moving again.
Note: Article from

Submarines for Indonesia

Indonesia sites astride one of the world’s most critical submarine chokepoints. A large share of global trade must pass through the critical Straits of Malacca, and the shallow littoral waters around the Indonesian archipelago. That makes for excellent submarine hunting grounds, but Indonesia has only 2 “Cakra Class”/ U209 submarines in its own fleet, relying instead on frigates, corvettes, and fast attack craft.
South Korea’s Daewoo, which has experience building U209s for South Korea, has been contracted for Cakra Class submarine upgrades. Even so, submarine pressure hulls have inflexible limits on their safe lifetime, due to repeated hydraulic squeezing from ascending and descending. The Indonesians have expressed serious interest in buying 3-6 replacement submarines since 2007, with French, German, Russian, South Korean, and even Turkish shipyards in the rumored mix. Other priorities shoved the sub purchase aside, but a growing economy and military interest finally revived it. South Korea was the beneficiary, but further orders may be in store:

Strategic Plans & Contending Designs

s072 & CVN
ROKN Sohn Won-Yil

Indonesia’s Defence Strategic Plan 2024 calls for a fleet of 10 submarines. By then, its 2 Cakra Class boats are likely to be on their last safe years, if not completely decommissioned. In 2011, Indonesia bought 3 more. The question is whether and when Indonesia’s growing economy, military priorities, and cadre of trained submarine personnel and support will allow further buys.
Broadly speaking, the Indonesians could consider 3-6 potential diesel-electric powered submarine designs, from 5 different countries reported to date. The biggest technical and political question is whether Indonesia wants an Air-Independent Propulsion (AIP) addition that allows up to 3 weeks of submerged operation, at low speed. AIP makes diesel-electric submarines harder to detect, but would provoke regional concerns from its neighbors. Indonesia may even decide it prefers a conventional design that “shows the flag” on the surface more often, due to its location and need to maintain good relations.
HDW’s latest export product is the U214, with an AIP system. It is more advanced than the U209, and more expensive. Variants and related designs have been ordered by German & Italy (as the U212A), Greece, South Korea, and Turkey.
Indonesia already operated the U209/1300 variant, and one initial option was to simply buy more U209s with fully modern internal systems. That’s a cost effective option with low additional support costs, and that was Indonesia’s choice. Submarine type was not specified, but their tonnage appears to make them Chang Bogo Class stretched and modernized U209/1200s.
Either one of HDW’s sub types could be manufactured by Germany, South Korea, or Turkey. Turkey tried to play the Islamic card, and trying to get extra work for its shipyard. On the other hand, South Korea had an existing relationship with Indonesia’s submarine fleet, and could play the regional & support angles. South Korea won the initial 3-sub tender, but Turkey will be back and bidding if there’s another one.
Andrasta concept
France’s DCNS has 3 relevant offerings. The most prominent is its Scorpene Class, which has been ordered by nearby Malaysia and by India. India is assembling its 6 submarines locally, but that has led to delays, and they would be an unproven shipyard for re-export purposes. The Scorpene can be delivered with or without AIP systems, just like its Agosta 90B predecessor that is being built for Pakistan in both configurations. To date, ordered Scorpenes have been the standard CM-2000 variant.
One unique option that DCNS could offer its its Andrasta Class pocket submarine. This small 855t design is optimized for littoral, shallow water environments like Indonesia, much like the used German U206 boats that Thailand is reportedly ordering. The Andrasta uses many Scorpene technologies, but trades shorter cruising range and 6 torpedo tubes that can only be loaded in dock, in exchange for more underwater stealth and lower cost. This would be the least regionally provocative choice, and might be the least expensive per boat, while giving Indonesia a potent threat within its home waters. The question is whether its capability set interests the Indonesians. Vietnam, with similar underwater terrain and frugal budgets, chose to buy Russian Kilo Class submarines instead. Indonesia likewise chose a full-size submarine design.
SSK Kilo Class Iran
Kilo Class
Russia made a strong play of its own, and has begun supplying Indonesia with a variety of defense equipment in recent years. Most of those buys have been land vehicles and aircraft, but the Indonesian Navy has equipped some of its ships with long-range supersonic P800/SS-N-26 missiles.
Indonesia appreciates Russia’s prices, and lack of interference with how their equipment is used. Russia’s Kilo/ Improved Kilo Class submarines are a good technical choice for Indonesia’s environment, and popular around the world; nearby countries who operate or have ordered these subs include India, Vietnam, and China.

Contracts & Key Events

SSK Preveze Class
Preveze Class:
Turkish U209
Feb 20/12: Turkey’s Hurriyet Daily News reports that Indonesia has been consoling Turkey over the loss of the recent submarine tender, which Turkey apparently lost because they didn’t bid in time. Indonesian Chief of Staff Adm. Agus Suhartono apparently discussed a future submarine tender involving the U214 subs that Turkish shipyards are building in partnership with HDW. The country’s official plan does contemplate 5-7 more submarines by 2024. If economics allows, South Korean shipyards are also building U214s with HDW. With other models on the market and ready to compete, any future Indonesian tender will still be interesting.
The report adds that Indonesia and Turkey are exploring a $100M contract to build military radios from Aselsan, a plan to produce “missiles” designed by Roketsan (likely 122mm and300mm rockets, or CIRIT guided 70mm rockets), and a possible order for the BAE/FNSS Pars 8×8 wheeled APCs. Neighboring Malaysia has already bought the Pars.
Feb 6/12: Cakra refits done. Indonesia’s other active submarine, KRI Nanggala, returns from Daewoo Shipbuilding & Marine Engineering in Busan, South Korea, after a 24-month deep refit overhaul. KRI Cakra received a similar overhaul in beginning in 2006, so this completes work on Indonesia’s current fleet of 2.
DSME replaced the upper structure from bow to stern, some parts of the propulsion system, and the submarine’s sonar, radar, weapons system and combat system. The new combat system allows the Cakra Class to fire 4 wire-guided torpedoes simultaneously at 4 different targets, or launch anti-ship missiles including the French Exocet and American Harpoon. The new structure allows safe dives to 257m, and propulsion improvements raise top speed from 21.5 to 25 knots. Jakarta Post.
Dec 22/11: South Korea wins. Reports surface that The Indonesian Defense Ministry and South Korea’s Daewoo Shipbuilding Marine Engineering have signed a $1.07 billion contract for 3 more submarines. Type is not specified, but their tonnage appears to make them Chang Bogo Class stretched U209/1200s. Reports say that 2 of the 3 submarines will be built in South Korea in cooperation with Indonesian state-owned shipbuilder PT PAL, while the 3rd submarine will be built at PT PAL’s facilities in Surabaya.
Deliveries are expected in 2015 and 2016. The question is whether the existing Cakra Class boats will have much safe life left in them after that point, even with recent refits. Barring additional purchases, in line with Indonesia’s 10-submarine goal in its “Defence Strategic Plan 2024,” it’s likely that within a few years of receiving the new boats, Indonesia’s submarine fleet will begin dropping back to 4 and then to 3 submarines. Antara News | Chosun Ilbo | Jakarta Post.
July 23/11: The Turks say one thing about Indonesia’s submarine deal, the Koreans another. Only one can be right. South Korea’s Chosun Ilbo says:
“A [Indonesian] senior government official said Taufik Kiemas, the speaker of the Indonesian People’s Consultative Assembly, told [South Korean] Prime Minister Kim Hwang-sik on Wednesday morning that Daewoo is virtually certain to get the nod for the [US$1.08 billion submarine] project. “There still are some more processes to follow, but the deal will be struck, unless something comes up,” the official said.”
If either Turkey or South Korea land this deal, however, one thing is certain: the submarines in question will be from Germany’s HDW. Both the Turkish and Korean shipyards have experience building U209 vessels, and both have also signed deals to build new U214s, with Korea’s KSS-II program slightly ahead of Turkey’s.
June 30/11: A Turkish Ministry of Defense official tells Today’s Zaman that a deal with Indonesia for 2 U209 submarines is “very close.” If the expected deal between the two states is signed, Turkey’s Savunma Teknolojileri Muhendislik ve Ticaret A.S. (STM) would partner with HDW to build them in the Golcuk shipyard.
Dec 9/09: The Jakarta Post reports that Indonesia’s submarine buy is at least 4 years away from a contract, given the government’s needs and priorities. Navy Chief of Staff Vice Adm. Agus Suhartono is quoted:
“We will choose a country that can provide us with a product at a competitive price and offers better transfer of technology options,” he said. “The tender process will be open using a credit export financing scheme.” Each submarine is estimated to cost around Rp 3.5 trillion (US$371.85 million).”
July 7/09: The Korea Times is more direct, in “Indonesian Redtape Torpedoes Sub Sale Bid”:
“Three more companies from Russia, Germany and France competed for the deal. But sources said the Indonesian Navy demanded unacceptable terms so Daewoo and the German and French firms dropped out. Only the Russian firm remained, forcing Indonesia to instigate a second round of bidding…. Russia is considered its major competitor, since it is backed by well-established political ties with Indonesia and an offer of a $1-billion loan. In another negative sign, the incumbent Indonesian defense minister is said to be pro-Russian.
In the end, the second bid is likely to be a duel between Korea and Russia, according to informed officials, with the other two bidding countries skeptical about Jakarta’s request on price cuts… Daewoo is planning to enter the second round of bidding for the subs, hoping to take advantage of ties cultivated since the establishment of its Indonesian unit in 1976.”
Feb 9/09: Yusron Ihza, Indonesia’s deputy speaker of the House of Representatives’ Commission I on political, security and foreign affairs, confirms the country’s interest in 3 Improved Kilo Class submarines, but offers no details concerning funding. Antara News quotes him:
“There’s always been a plan to purchase submarines and I’ve surveyed a few submarine workshops in Moscow, Russia. This submarine will display our naval strength and allow us to be ready for any armed conflicts…. It’s not necessary to own many submarines since they are expensive, just three state of the art units will suffice to safeguard the integrity of our waters,” Ihza said…. My colleagues and I at the House have fought for an increase in defense spending, yet unfortunately this isn’t possible now….”
Indeed, only 1/3 of the proposed defense budget was approved. Jakarta Post.
Note: Article from

Thursday, February 23, 2012

Singapore Raises Defence Spending by 4.3 Per Cent

An F-15SG fighter aircraft of the Republic of Singapore Air Force.

Singapore’s 2012 Defence Budget Increased to USD 9.73 Billion
As Agence France Presse (AFP) reported, the recently released annual budget report by the government of Singapore indicates that the Southeast Asian country will raise defence spending by 4.3 per cent in 2012. This represents an increase of SGD 504 million* over the 2011 budget and will, thereby, augment the total defence budget to SGD 12.28 billion (USD 9.73 billion). 

According to the report data cited by AFP, defence expenditures will constitute 24.4 per cent of the Singapore government’s total spending for 2012, making the defence ministry the largest beneficiary of the budget allocation. The island city-state, located at the southern tip of the Malayan Peninsula, affords itself a strong military with the largest budget in Southeast Asia and the seventh largest in Asia, according to the IHS global research group. 

Further, Singapore’s defence budget is expected to reach an estimated $12.32 billion by 2015. “States like Singapore have a strong current account and currency and very sound public finances, so its defence spending looks stable in the near term,” explained Rajiv Biswas, Asia Pacific chief economist at IHS Global Insight. 

On Sunday, Feb. 19, the 2012 edition of the Singapore Airshow closed its doors, announcing a record value of aerospace and defence deals worth over USD 31 billion, which represents a threefold increase over the total value of agreements announced in 2010 (USD 10 billion). According to the Jakarta Post, the largest transactions during the six-day event were made in civilian aircraft and the engine sector by Boeing, Airbus, Pratt and Whitney CFM and ATR. 

In his speech at the Singapore Airshow opening ceremony, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister for Defence Teo Chee Hean emphasised the positive prospects for the global defence sector: “This sector has weathered the crisis fairly well. Despite some restraints on defence spending in 2009, countries around the world continued to invest in long-term programmes to renew and upgrade their air defence assets and equipment. With the global recovery, we can expect spending on military aircraft to rise as countries resume their plans to acquire next generation combat fighters, improve Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance capabilities, and upgrade to a modern network-centric warfare environment.”

The Defence Minister further added: “In addition, the demand for military aircraft that can perform a wider range of missions is also likely to increase in the near future as countries face even more complex security challenges, other than war. For example, critical operations, such as Humanitarian Assistance and Disaster Relief, will be an important role for transport aircraft that can carry out airlift or personnel evacuation missions. Helicopters, too, have demonstrated their versatility and are indispensable in roles ranging from delivery of emergency aid directly to survivors, medical evacuation, and counter-piracy operations where helicopters have proven to be an effective deterrent to pirate boardings.” 

In addition to close security-political and defence ties with Western countries, Singapore is an important partner for the United States, promoting a strong US presence in the region and representing a key strategic hub for US forces. In fact, an element of the US defence strategy shift towards the Asia-Pacific region includes the basing of four Littoral Combat Ships (LCS) in Singapore. This is possible due to a bilateral memorandum of understanding (MOU), signed in 1990 and offering the US military access to specific Singapore defence facilities. (nvk)

Article from

Iran: New Military Exercises, But No New Threat

An Iranian submarine during the Velayat 90 naval exercises in the Strait of Hormuz on Jan. 3

The Iranian air force announced Feb. 20 that it had begun a four-day drill covering a zone of 190,000 square kilometers (73,300 square miles) in southern Iran. The exercises, dubbed "Sarollah," would be held to counter "all possible threats, especially to public, important and nuclear centers." The exercises follow the Feb. 19 start of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps' (IRGC) own "Valfajr" ground forces exercises in the deserts of central Iran.
Unlike the previously scheduled navy exercises in the Strait of Hormuz -- which Stratfor sources say have either been canceled or at the very least delayed -- these exercises appear to be largely defensive in nature and are taking place far from the Persian Gulf's critical oil artery, a much more provocative site for military drills. Though the additional drills demonstrate Iran's concerns about military readiness, it appears the Iranians are deliberately restraining themselves in these maneuvers, which would be consistent with Tehran's efforts to reduce tensions and re-energize negotiations with the United States.
During the Sarollah exercises, Iran's air force will seek to improve the integration and cooperation of Iranian surface-to-air missile systems, anti-aircraft artillery, radar systems and warplanes that belong to both the Iranian air force as well as the IRGC. The IRGC's Valfajr exercises involve ground maneuvers by engineer and armor units in the central Markazi desert near the city of Yazd. According to IRGC commander Brig. Gen. Mohammad Pakpour, the drill is the last phase in a series of war games attended by infantry units and some Basij members (an Iranian plainclothes militia), which were intended to transfer the lessons learned during the Iran-Iraq War to younger troops.
In contrast to the Velayat 90 naval exercises held Dec. 24-Jan. 3 in the Gulf of Oman and Strait of Hormuz and the previously planned Great Prophet VII naval maneuvers slated to take place by Feb. 19 and apparently delayed, the current exercises are being held near the center of the country and far away from the politically volatile Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz and Iran-Afghanistan border. The ground maneuvers and heavy emphasis on air-defense also highlight the largely defensive nature of these exercises.
On Feb. 12, Pakpour announced that the IRGC planned to stage new military exercises before the end of the current Iranian calendar year on March 20. It is not clear whether he was referring to the Great Prophet VII exercises or another planned drill -- the Iranians regularly obfuscate these sorts of announcements. However, a Stratfor source said the exercises Pakpour discussed were originally supposed to last until the beginning of March but will now be carried out for only two days. The source explained that these changes are intended to signal a major de-escalation in Iranian posturing. Considering that on Jan. 15, the United States also postponed military exercises with Israel originally scheduled for April, the Iranian downgrade of these exercises could represent a reciprocal gesture and one consistent with the overall Iranian effort toward reducing tensions with Washington in order to facilitate backchannel negotiations.
Note: Article from

Monday, February 20, 2012

DAP Lim GE vs MCA Chua SL Debate – Secrets Revealed

Yesterday’s debate between MCA president Chua Soi Lek and DAP secretary-general Lim Guan Eng was a disappointment for those who’re looking for a debate entitled “Chinese at a Crossroads – Is a Two-Party System Becoming a Two-Race System?” simply because both debaters had failed to delve into the topic. DAP Lim was said to be stupid to walk into a trap by accepting the challenge for the debate because the place of event, organisers and moderators are all bias towards MCA.
After the debate, obviously it was a trap all right but the reason why DAP Lim accepted the challenge was not because he was idiot enough to walk into a trap but because of the opportunity to reach the Chinese audience nationwide through government-controlled media namely Astro’s AEC and radio 988 channels, free of charge. From the moment the bell rings, it was all havoc when MCA Chua started with what seemed to be a political speech than a debate by smashing and attacking DAP by playing the old trick – scare tactic of an Islamic state with DAP being the latter’s slave.
MCA DAP Debate Chua Soi Lek vs Lim Guan Eng
Actually, Chua Soi Lek has got nothing to lose as he has no government position and can scream and bonk anyone he wishes to especially with the little Chinese supporters left post Mar 2008 general election, not to mention his sex DVD scandal where he was caught with his pants down bonking his “friend” in a hotel room. His job in the debate was to do as much damage as possible to Lim Guan Eng and hopefully the government-controlled racist-media Utusan could use any mistakes from Guan Eng to spin stories. He was an excellent sneaky orator all right but in his attempt to trap Guan Eng, did Soi Lek get his fingers burned instead?
As a start, Guan Eng drove the message that the present government led by Najib Razak is a racist government whereby UMNO takes care of the Malay, MCA the Chinese, MIC the Indians and promotes two-race division through dive-and-rule – the “Malays” and “non-Malays”. Obviously Lim Guan Eng scored a point when he talked about Pakatan Rakyat taking care of only “Malaysians” instead. Sure, it was not really a big secret that Najib’s BN is a racist government but it was a sweet and free publicity for Pakatan Rakat via DAP in sending the message to rural voters, who may be listening to the debate.
Chua Soi Lek
Nevertheless, Guan Eng was caught almost off-guard when his query about RM12 billion PKFZ scandal to Soi Lek – why only MCA leaders had been brought to trial while the Umno had been left free – was brilliantly twisted by Soi Lek as a racial statement. From that moment onwards, Guan Eng realized that the whole debate was about to get ugly because it was DAP-Lim Guan Eng bashing session and not a debate after all. So it’s another (open) secret that the trap was about dividing the DAP and PAS along the racial line.
Chua Soi Lek also tried his luck by saying that it is highly unlikely for a 3 year old child (referring to Pakatan’s tenure of rule) to make mistake as opposed to a 63 years adult (referring to MCA’s existence). If the 3 year old child is given another 60 years, the mistakes made is beyond imaginable – Soi Lek further said. Indirectly, the MCA president admitted his party (and Najib government as a whole) mades tons of mistake and this can easily understandable to include corruption. So, it’s another secret that the 63-year-old MCA was working hand in glove with UMNO (or alone) in tons of the corruptions exposed.
Lim Guan Eng
At one time, Lim Guan Eng quoted former MCA president Ong Tee Kiat as admitted that UMNO was such a bully that MCA was reduced from a party that took “leftovers” (from UMNO) to one which subsisted only on “crumbs”. Chua Soi Lek smartly responded that for the same reason, Ong Tee Kiat was rejected (of his presidency) from the party. But was that a smart answer considering it also revealed the secret that MCA has indeed been a lap dog of UMNO after all, leftovers or crumbs?
Chua apparently made a mistake without realising it when he tried to relate a story about Kedah Pakatan Rakyat’s ADUN demanded 30% rebate. According to Chua, he was shocked to find such discovery as he thought such practive only happen in BN government (*oops*). This is perhaps the biggest secret and admission that the present Najib administration is corrupt, well, at least you have to get ready a 30% coffee-money, if not more.
MCA DAP Debate Asli
The most hilarious part was of course the attempt by the MCA and organiser to suppress DAP supporters when obviously MCA supporters were given the privilege of front rows seating, denying Pakatan Rakyat supporters of chances in raising questions as it would require them to take Air-Asia flight to grab the microphone (*grin*). The climax was reached when Selayang parliamentary coordinator cum Beliawanis Wanita MCA Selangor chief, Jessie Ooi, bitching stupid questions demanded to know why (her?) cars in Penang were being towed after 10:30pm, instantly earned her Ms Tow Truck from netizens.
Needless to say, Jessie Ooi’s facebook attracted thousands of criticisms over her low mentality in raising questions. Either she was pure foolish or she was trying her very best to polish and suck up to her boss Chua Soi Lek hoping to be fielded as candidate in the coming general election. Anyway, this goes to show MCA is out of capital in winning Chinese hearts and this debate revealed such secret to the otherwise uninformed rural voters, not to mention the secret that MCA will always cheat to win. You don’t need to be a scientist to see such cheater when 99% MCA members get to grab the microphone planted to make noises and create hatred towards Lim Guan Eng, not to mention 99% camera was focused on MCA supporters as if they were Tom Cruise and Lady Gaga.
MCA Selayang Jessie Ooi Facebook
Adding spices to the debate, the moderator, Tan Ah Chai (CEO of Kuala Lumpur and Selangor Chinese Assembly Hall), successfully made a fool out of himself when not only he failed to allocate fairly the questionaires from the audience, he also revealed the secret that he’s bias and a lap dog of MCA, not to mention how he was shivering being cowed by the MCA supporters seated in the front rows. I bet Auntie Bersih can be a better moderator than Tan Ah Chai miles ahead.
Nevertheless, Lim Guan Eng was smart enough not to play to the scripts written by MCA and ignored mostly irrelevant questions. He was brilliant in making good use of the once in a lifetime opportunity and remaining precious time to drive home the message of Pakatan Rakyat’s political message through the government-controlled free television and radio channel. MCA and UMNO can “syok sendiri” (self-indulgent) for all they want but the fact remains that petty cheating via seat arrangement and uncivilised planted MCA supporters will not earn them any extra Chinese votes. Now, can the citizens expect a real debate between heavyweight PM Najib Razak and de-facto opposition leader Anwar Ibrahim?

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